The Difference Between Superchargers and Turbos

This is how superchargers work versus turbos. The main function of both superchargers and turbos is to deliver more air to the internal combustion process of an engine. The main difference between the two is that superchargers are mechanically driven. Let’s look at how each unit works, as the turbos are generally connected to the engine crankshaft and are driven by the engine exhaust gas.

How superchargers work :

Supercharger type air intake sits on top of the manifold a serpentine belt transfers crankshaft power to the supercharger pulley pulley diameter and structure is an easily accessible way to quickly change the performance characteristics of the supercharger a gear drive system transmits incoming power to opposing rotors outside air, air enters through the filter and intake pipe locks the rotors together Carries air through the supercharger long fins or protrusions that run along its length called lobes of the rotor shaft air exits the supercharger through a specially shaped bleed hole in the bottom of the housing there are several common types of superchargers Roots type The supercharger saw its first automobile application in 1900. The term blower or blower motor originally came from the Root supercharger’s primary function, which uses twin screws as air blowers. Unlike other designs that compress air, twin-screw type superchargers have complex rotors with intricately designed lobes that compress air as it moves through the unit, this increasing complexity results in better performance, but also provides higher performance. centrifugal centrifugal superchargers have much in common with the turbo design concept, but are still mechanically driven, produce an exponential power curve, and are usually tuned to deliver full boost in the engine.

How turbochargers work :

The turbo connects to the engine exhaust The system exhaust manifold on turbo setups may be specifically designed for the Turbo layout and has two separate compartments called the turbine section and the compressor section of the turbo to handle the increased heat and pressure the exhaust heat and pressure flows into the turbine section as it drives the turbine or exhaust the impeller shaft connects the exhaust impeller to the compressor impeller the compressor impeller draws air in through the air filter and intake pipe its specially shaped vanes pass the air through a progressively smaller baffle building compression air becomes hot during intake and compression so in most turbo setups the engine with the turbo to return the air to ambient temperature The cooler air between the inlet and the intercooler has greater density and serves the purpose of allowing more air into the engine. The intercooler works like a radiator. The hot air passes through the internal pipes while the outside air passes for cooling.

Turbo types :

  • Single turbo
  • Twin turbo
  • Twin scroll turbo

Here are some common turbo designs a single turbo shown here a twin turbo where all the exhaust flows from a single turbocharger a setup with two turbochargers on a six cylinder engine for example an Engine Bank twin scroll with one turbo for each cylinder The turbo exhaust exits the cylinder in a cylinder to the high pressure section Twin-scroll turbos, which have pulse followed by low pressure, split the cylinders into pairs so that the exhaust pulse waves do not interfere with each other and a continuous maximum pressure exhaust flow reaches the turbine.

Difference between Superchargers and Turbos :

Let’s compare superchargers and turbos again in very general terms. Superchargers are powered by mechanical energy, for example via coupling to an engine’s crankshaft, while turbos are powered by the crankshaft. Otherwise wasted heat energy stems from engine exhaust boost characteristics and twin-screw superchargers have positive displacement, meaning they move the same amount of air for each engine revolution. This also means they can instantly boost even at very low RPMs and have a fairly linear power curve. Turbo setups produce an exponential power curve because they are powered by exhaust turbos. It takes time to build turbine speed and pressure before producing a usable boost. lag is called turbo lag efficiency superchargers take power to make power and while the average setup may require 40 to 60 horsepower to run, this doesn’t always mean that overall engine efficiency is sacrificed as some setups can increase fuel economy when turbos are not driven aggressively. They increase the back pressure in the engine, they get power mainly from wasted exhaust heat as opposed to exhaust flow pressure, so they can be very efficient, as a result superchargers can be less complex, a cheaper way to increase engine performance, they are generally easier to tune and maintain, at all revs It may be ideal in applications that require predictable boost. Turbos may require more peripheral parts such as oil and vacuum lines, intercooler, special exhaust manifolds and exhaust pipes, etc. Turbos such as, while well tuned, may require more skill to configure properly. The turbo system is more efficient and can boost more abundantly than a supercharger.

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