How do Tesla Electric Cars Work?

How Tesla cars work. I will give information about electrically powered cars. Electric vehicles have caused great waves in the automobile world. It is thought that these noiseless, non-polluting and high-performance vehicles will be the end of internal combustion vehicles, with electric cars increasing by 2027. Electric cars generally get power from batteries that run on electrical energy. It is more harmless than internal combustion cars. They do not harm the environment much, their cost is cheaper than oil, their noise and high performance are advantageous compared to other cars.

Induction Motor Invented By Nikola Tesla :

The technology that powers the TESLA vehicle is the induction motor, which was invented by Nikola Tesla, a scientific pioneer even 100 years ago. The induction motor has two basic parts: stator and rotor. The rotor part is simply a set of conductive rods short-circuited by connecting them with rings at their ends. Three phase alternating currents are given as the stator. This three-phase alternating current in the windings creates a rotating magnetic field. The TESLA motor creates a 4-pole rotating magnetic field. This rotating magnetic field interacts with the current in the rotor bars, turning them. In an induction motor, the motor speed always lags behind the rotation speed of the rotating magnetic field. An induction motor contains neither brushes nor permanent magnets. However, it is also very powerful. The beauty of the induction motor is that the speed of the motor depends on the frequency of the alternating current source. We can change the speed of the wheels by simply changing the frequency of the power supply. This simple fact allows us to adjust the speed control of the electric vehicle easily, precisely and reliably. The motor is driven by a variable frequency alternating current controller that controls its speed as a power source. The motor speed can range from zero to 18,000 cycles per minute. It is one of the most significant advantages over internal combustion vehicles. An internal combustion engine can only produce efficient power and torque within limited rev ranges. On the other hand, due to this limited speed issue, it is not a smart idea to transfer the rotation of the internal combustion engine directly to the wheels. In order to constantly stay at efficient speeds, a gearbox must be inserted. On the other hand, the induction motor can operate with high efficiency in any speed range, so a gearbox that regulates the speed is not needed in electric vehicles. Moreover, the internal combustion engine does not directly create rotary motion. The linear motion of the piston must be converted into rotational motion. This poses a big problem for mechanical balancing (causes vibration). Internal combustion engines cannot start on their own like induction engines, since weights are installed that will produce vibration in reverse phase to dampen the vibration. Moreover, the power output of internal combustion engines is intermittent. This irregular power must be softened with the help of a weight disc. Many redundant parts are required to solve these problems. However, in the induction motor, the movement is produced as direct rotation and the power output is balanced according to the circuit. Unnecessary parts in the internal combustion engine can be saved in the induction motor. As a result of these factors, the induction engine will naturally offer higher performance than internal combustion vehicles with its sensitive engine response and high power-to-weight ratio.

Where Does the Engine Get its Power?

When using electric cars, where does the engine get this power? Of course, a battery produces direct current from a battery. This direct current must be converted to alternating current before entering the engine. Inverter is used for this purpose. This power electronic device controls the motor speed by controlling the alternating current frequency. The inverter also controls the power output of the motor by controlling the wave amplitude of the alternating current. For this purpose, the inverter acts as the brain of the vehicle. You will be surprised when you see that lithium ion cells are actually similar to the batteries we use in daily life. These batteries are combined in series and parallel to produce the power to run the vehicle. The coolant glycol liquid flows through the metal tubes between these cells. This is a fundamental innovation made by Tesla in battery technology. It guarantees effective cooling by using small and large cells instead of a small number of large cells. This minimizes temperature condensations and allows more battery charging and discharging cycles thanks to equal temperature distribution. Thus, it extended the life of the batteries. The battery cells are arranged in detachable modules. There are a total of 16 modules containing 7000 cells. The heated glycol is cooled by passing it through the radiator placed in front of the vehicle. Moreover, you can see how much the battery placed so low will lower the vehicle’s center of gravity. The lower center of gravity noticeably improves the driving stability of the vehicle. The large battery spread across the floor also contributes to the structural rigidity of the chassis in side impacts.

Transmission Gear With Single Speed :

Tesla Model S uses a simple single-speed transmission. Because the engine can operate efficiently in a wide speed band, you can see that the engine output speed is reduced in two stages. It is also quite easy to reverse gear in an electric vehicle. The only thing to do is to change the direction of the rotating magnetic field by changing the order of the power phases of the motor. The only purpose of the electric vehicle transmission is to gain from the torque lost from the road. The 2nd part of the power transfer is the differential, the reduced speed is transferred to the differential, you see the simple open differential. But the open differential has problems with traction control. But why does such an advanced vehicle use an open differential instead of a limited slip differential? Because the open differential is more robust and can handle high torque. The problems that an open differential may cause can be effectively solved in two ways: 1. selective braking, 2. cutting off the power supply. In the internal combustion engine, fuel cutting was not very effective due to the weight disc, etc. In the induction engine, since there is no unnecessary weight, the power is cut off from the wheels as soon as the power is cut off and traction control can be achieved in this way. These were achieved with the help of great computer algorithms and sensors and controllers. In short, Tesla uses sensitive software instead of complex mechanical hardware. Did you know that electric vehicles can be driven effectively with just one pedal? This is thanks to the powerful regenerative braking system, which means that a huge amount of kinetic energy is saved by converting it into electricity instead of turning into heat. In an electric vehicle, as soon as the accelerator pedal is released, regenerative braking is activated. Interestingly, during regenerative braking, the same induction motor acts as an alternator. Here the wheels turn the rotor of the induction motor. We know that the rotation speed of the rotating magnetic field in the induction motor is less than the rotor speed. In order to turn the engine into an alternator, it must be ensured that the rotor speed is higher than the rotation speed of the magnetic field. The inverter adjusts the input power frequency here, thus playing a critical role by keeping the rotating magnetic field speed below the rotor speed. This causes a much higher current in the stator windings than that coming from the inverter. The generated electricity can be stored back into the battery after conversion from alternating current to direct current. A magnetic force in the opposite direction to the movement of the wheels is applied to the rotor at this time, so the vehicle slows down. In this way, the speed of the vehicle can be adjusted precisely while driving with a single pedal. The brake pedal can be applied for full stop. As you may notice, electric vehicles They are much safer than those with internal combustion engines. In terms of maintenance and operating costs, an electric car is much more affordable than those with an internal combustion engine.

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